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Much of our work is evidence-based, supporting the effectiveness of our use of technology to support learning. We contribute to and develop regular research articles, as well as conference proceedings and presentations.

Research articles by year of publication

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Woodham LA, Round J, Stenfors T, Bujacz A, Karlgren K, Jivram T, Riklefs V, Poulton E, Poulton T (2019). Virtual patients designed for training against medical error: Exploring the impact of decision-making on learner motivation. PLoS ONE 14(4): e0215597.

Kononowicz AA, Woodham LA, Edelbring S, Stathakarou N, Davies D, Saxena N, et al.. Virtual Patient Simulations in Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration. J Med Internet Res [Internet]. 2019 Jul 2;21(7):e14676. Available from: 

Sin J, Henderson C, Woodham LA, Sesé Hernández A, Gillard S. A Multicomponent eHealth Intervention for Family Carers for People Affected by Psychosis: A Coproduced Design and Build Study. J Med Internet Res 2019;21(8):e14374. DOI: 10.2196/14374
PMID: 31389333
Available from: 


Dickerson E, Dixon K, Williams B. Transforming education at St. George’s with Canvas. In Di Napoli, Roberto; Miles, Elizabeth; Ibison, Judith; Oliveira, David (2018): Education Day 2017 Proceedings - Transformational Education: Learning for Life. figshare. Paper.

Dickerson E, Dixon K, Williams B. Transforming education at St. George’s with Canvas. In Di Napoli, Roberto; Miles, Elizabeth; Ibison, Judith; Oliveira, David (2018): Education Day 2017 Proceedings - Transformational Education: Learning for Life. figshare. Paper.

Jivram T, Woodham L, Poulton E, Round J, Poulton T. Training Against Medical Error (TAME) - transforming medical education using medical error virtual patient cases. In Di Napoli, Roberto; Miles, Elizabeth; Ibison, Judith; Oliveira, David (2018): Education Day 2017 Proceedings - Transformational Education: Learning for Life. figshare. Paper.


Kononowicz A, Woodham L, Kavia S. The different dimensions of widening access to virtual scenarios in the WAVES project. E-mentor 2017; 3(70): 47-54. DOI 10.15219/em70.1301

Schwarz D, Kavia S. User stories can help you to shape the design of an educational project: experience from WAVES. MEFANET Journal 2016; 4(2): 65-70. Available at:

Vaitsis C, Spachos D, Karolyi M, Woodham L, Zary N, Bamidis P, Komenda M. Standardization in medical education: review, collection and selection of standards to address technical and educational aspects in outcome-based medical education. MEFANET Journal 2017; 5(1): 28-39. Available at:

Woodham, LA., Poulton, E., Jivram, T., Kavia, S., Sesé Hernández, A., Sahakian, CS. and Poulton, T. Evaluation of student and Tutor response to the simultaneous implementation of a new PBL curriculum in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, based on the medical curriculum of St George’s, University of London. 2017. MEFANET Journal 2017; 5(1): 19-27

Woodham, LA., Ellaway, RH., Round, J., Vaughan, S., Poulton, T. and Zary, N. Medical Student and Tutor Perceptions of Video Versus Text in an Interactive Online Virtual Patient for Problem-Based Learning: A Pilot Study. 2015. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(6):e151.

Poulton, Terry., Ellaway, Rachel H., Round, Jonathan., Jivram, Trupti., Kavia, Sheetal., Hilton, Sean., 2014. Exploring the Efficacy of Replacing Linear Paper-Based Patient Cases in Problem-Based Learning With Dynamic Web-Based Virtual Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(11):e240.

Ellaway, Rachel H., Poulton, Terry., Jivram, Trupti., 2014. Decision PBL: A 4-year retrospective case study of the use of virtual patients in problem-based learning. Medical Teacher, p. 1-9.

Beaumont, Chris., Savin-Baden, Maggi., Conradi, Emily., Poulton, Terry., 2014. Evaluating a Second Life Problem-Based Learning (PBL) demonstrator project: what can we learn?. Interactive Learning Environments, 22 (1), p. 125-141.


Hooper, C., Michell, A., Law, S., Jivram, T. and Somasunderam, A., 2012. Ethical Virtual Patients, MedEdWorld Publish, [online] Available at:

Hooper, C., Jivram, T., Law, S., Michell, A. and Somasunderam, A., 2012. Using virtual patients to teach medical ethics, medical law and medical professionalism. Medical Teacher, 34(8), p. 674-675.

Rampling, J., O’Brian, A., Hindaugh, K., Woodham, L. and Kavia, S., 2012. Using an online virtual environment in psychiatric problem-based learning. The Psychiatrist, 36, p, 391-396.


Guise, V., Chambers, M., Conradi, E. and Kavia, S., 2011. Development, implementation and initial evaluation of narrative virtual patients for use in vocational mental health nurse training. Nurse Education Today, 32(6), p. 683-689.

Poulton, T. and Balasubramaniam, C. Virtual patients: a year of change. Medical Teacher, 33(11), p. 933-937.

Savin-Baden, M., Tombs, C., Poulton, T., Conradi, E., Kavia, S., Burden, D. and Beaumont, C., 2011. An evaluation of implementing problem-based learning scenarios in an immersive virtual world. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, p. 116-124.

Kononowicz, A. A., Zary, N., Davies, D., Heid, J., Woodham, L., and Hege, I., 2011. Push and pull models to manage patient consent and licensing of multimedia resources in digital repositories for case-based reasoning. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 169, p. 203-207.

Evangelia, M., Taibi, D., Giordano, D., Dietze, S., Yu, H. Q., Bamidis, P., Bratsas, C. and Woodham, L., 2011. Connecting medical education resources to the Linked Data cloud: the mEducator RDF Schema, store and API. In: Linked Learning 2011: the 1st International Workshop on eLearning Approaches for the Linked Data Age, 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2011). Heraklion, Greece 29 May 2011.


Online e-assessment: Viewpoint. Poulton T, Conradi E, Round J, Med Teach, 2010

Mitsopoulou, E., Woodham, L., Balasubramaniam, C., Poulton, T., Protopsaltis, A. and Dietze, S., 2010. mEducator: multi type content repurposing and sharing in medical education. The Academy Subject Centre for Medicine, Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine Newsletter, 1(22), p. 26-28.


Round, J., Conradi, E. and Poulton, T., 2009. Improving assessment with virtual patients. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 759-763. Conradi, E., Kavia, S., Burden, D., Rice, A., Woodham, L., Beaumont, C., Savin-Baden, M. and Poulton, T., 2009. Virtual patients in a virtual world: Training paramedic students for practice. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 713-720.

Round, J., Conradi, E. and Poulton, T., 2009. Training staff to create simple interactive virtual patients: the impact on a medical and healthcare institution. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 764-769.

Poulton, T., Conradi, E., Kavia, S., Round, J. and Hilton, S., 2009. The replacement of ‘paper’ cases by interactive online virtual patients in problem-based learning. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 752-758.

Ellaway, R., Poulton, T., Smothers, V. and Greene, P., 2009. Virtual patients come of age. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 683-684.

Campbell, G., Miller, A. and Balasubramaniam, C., 2009. The role of Intellectual Property in Creating, Sharing and Repurposing Virtual Patients. Medical Teacher, 31(8), p. 709-712.

Zary, N., Hege, I., Heid, J., Woodham, L., Donkers, J. and Kononowicz, A. A., 2009. Enabling interoperability, accessibility and reusability of virtual patients across Europe – design and implementation. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 150, p. 826-830.

Kononowicz, A. A., Heid, J., Donkers, J., Hege, I., Woodham, L. and Zary, N., 2009. Development and validation of strategies to test for interoperability of virtual patients. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 150, p. 185-189.Savin-Baden, M., Tombs, C., White, D., Poulton, T., Kavia, S. and Woodham, L., 2009. Getting Started with Second Life. JISC, [online]


Ellaway, R., Poulton, T., Fors, U., McGee, J. B. and Albright, S., 2008. Building a virtual patient commons. Medical Teacher, 30(2), p. 170-174.

Balasabramaniam, C. and Poulton, T., 2008. eViP: Electronic virtual patients. The Higher Education Academy, 16, p. 6-7.

Miller, A., Balasubramaniam, C. and Poulton, T., 2008. Intellectual property issues – coming to an institution near you! The Higher Education Academy, 17, p. 6-7.

Burden, D., Conradi, E., Woodham, L., Poulton, T., Savin-Baden, M. and Kavia, S., 2008. Creating and assessing a virtual patient player in Second Life. In: ReLIVE 08 – Proceedings of Researching Learning in Virtual Environments International Conference. Milton Keynes, UK 20-21 November 2008. Milton Keynes

Smothers, V., Ellaway, R. and Balasubramaniam, C., 2008. eViP: sharing virtual patients across Europe. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 6, p. 1140.


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